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OTTO. *H0TO. iUfFALO. «. T. 



-«tT*OT 







BOUITIM OF THB 

TORRT-Y BOTANICAL OMH 

MAT. 1897. 



BULLETIN 

OF THE 



TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB. 



Vol. 24. Lancaster, Pa., May 29, 1897. No. 5. 



Emily L, Gregory. 

By ELIZABETH G. BRITTON. 
Botany and Barnard College have lost an earnest and devoted 
worker by the death of Doctor Gregory. Her loss is particularly 
sad just now when Barnard is at the threshold of its new and en- 
larged career, its scope and accommodations widened and its new 
home nearly ready for occupancy. That Dr. Gregory was one of 
the principal attractions of the College in the early days of its ca- 
reer, cannot be denied, for at first, the number of special students in 
botany exactly equalled, for three successive years, the total num- 
ber of students in the College. She gave herself enthusiastically 
to her work and spared neither her time nor her strength in her 
devotion to her pupils, encouraging them to do original investiga- 
tion and showing them by her own work and guidance in the 
laboratory how to do it. Her own attainments were high and 
diverse and she sometimes, perhaps, failed to realize that she be- 
fitted more advanced and special work than her students were 
qualified to accomplish, but whatever achievements are recorded 
from those who have worked with her, have always been of true 
scientific merit and often worthy of publication. Several have 
been read before the Torrey Botanical Club and published in the 
Bulletin and elsewhere. Besides this Dr. Gregory did her share 
of " popularizing " botany by assisting with her pupils at the three 
"Annual Exhibits of the Progress of Science, ,, held by the Acad- 
emy of Sciences of New York in the spring of 1895-96 and 1897. 
and by various private evening classes of men and women. The 
high and special character of her training guided her studies en- 



222 

tirely into the lines of Morphology and Physiology, and for Sys- 
tematic Botany she had very little interest, other than what was 
necessary for the accomplishment of her work in her own chosen 
fields. Neither can it be claimed thai: she accomplished a great deal 
of original investigation on widely different lines, but her frequent 
reviews in the Bulletin show that she kept informed on the most 
advanced German investigations and theories and her little text- 
book on the " Elements of Plant Anatomy " demonstrates that she 
had thoroughly mastered a wide range of subjects and adapted 
them for the use of her pupils. She was not clear nor concise in 
her lectures and quizzes, but this came from her desire to impart 
all that she could of the wealth of information she had in store and 
is amply compensated for by the lasting influences which she has 
left among those who have had the advantage of studying with 
her. 

Personally Dr. Gregory was extremely attractive, not only for 
her cheery good temper, but for her faculty in making friends and 
for her kindly and personal interest in all with whom she came in 
contact. She was simple and domestic in her tastes, preferring 
quiet and social pleasures to any show or ostentation, enjoying 
her "work for the work's sake," loving the truth and living an un- 
selfish life which ended without any long or gradual failure of her 
powers, or any serious suffering or painful iliness. She died 
peacefully, believing in the faith of her parents, with full confi- 
dence that everything had been done for her comfort by the 
friends and relations about her and was accompanied to her grave 
at Angola, N. Y., by loving friends and beautiful flowers. Her 
memory remains among us, full of gayety and kindliness and 
sweet content. 

BIOGRAPHY. 

Emily Loriva Gregory was born at Portage, New York, on 
December 31st, 1841. She received her early education at Albion 
Seminary and after graduating from there she taught at Dunkirk 
(Fredonia) Friendship Seminary and earned enough to go to Cor- 
nell University in 1876, where she studied botany and literature, 
taking her degree as Bachelor of Literature in 1 881. She held a 
position at Smith College from 1 88 i-i 88 3 as teacher of botany, 



223 

and the following winter had charge of the laboratory work in 
botany of the Harvard Annex. In 1 883-1884 she went abroad 
and studied for two years at Strasburg under Prof. Wigand and 
one year at Zurich, where on July 23d, 1886, she received her de- 
gree of Doctor of Philosophy, having been one of the earliest of 
American women to whom this honor was accorded. On her re- 
turn to America she held a position at Bryn Mawr for two years 
as associate in botany to Prof. E. B. Wilson, who was then pro- 
fessor of biology at that institution. She resigned this position 
because it was not congenial to her, and during the following 
winter was associated with Prof. W. P. Wilson at the University 
of Pennsylvania in developing its botanical laboratory. 

In the spring of 1889 she was appointed instructor in botany 
at Barnard College, and spent the summer abroad studying with 
Prof. Schwendener, at Berlin, and purchasing microscopes, charts, 
models and books for the new laboratory, the funds for the equip- 
ment of which were supplied from private subscriptions by mem- 
bers of the Torrey Botanical Club. She also spent her summer 
vacations abroad in 1893, 1894, and 1896, and always came back 
with renewed energy and zeal, as well as stores of books and 
fresh knowledge. 

Her department grew rapidly in popularity and in numbers, 
and it soon became necessary to secure the assistance of Miss 
Effie Southworth, now Mrs. Volney M. Spalding, and later of 
Miss Jean Howell. The collections for the laboratory were first 
begun with the herbarium of Elizabeth G. Knight as a nucleus, 
and subsequently that of Dr. Thomas Morong was added by pur- 
chase, also with a fund raised by private subscription among the 
members of the Torrey Botanical Club. A fellowship in botany 
was also endowed by Mrs. Esther Herrman, one of our members. 

The laboratory soon outgrew its cramped accommodation on 
the top floor of 343 Madison avenue and in 1895 it was moved to 
the top floor of No. 518 Fifth avenue. In 1896 Dr. Gregory was 
appointed full Professor of Botany and Dr. Herbert M. Richards 
was called to assist her. Together they had planned the new 
courses and laboratories in Brinckerhoff Hall, but Dr. Gregory did 
not live to see them completed, dying on April 21,1 897, just as the 
-arrangements for moving her residence and laboratory had been 



224 

made. She will be missed at the meetings of the Torrey Club at 
which she read several original papers. She has been connected 
with the Bulletin as associate editor since 1889 and has contri- 
buted thirty-five articles and reviews to its volumes, beginning 
in 1886. She was also an occasional contributor to the Botan- 
ical Gazette and an active member of the Society of American 
Naturalists, whose yearly meetings she frequently attended. She 
was elected a member of the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science in 1892, having attended the meeting at Rochester 
of that year and read a paper before the Botanical Section. She 
had also studied for a brief period at Woods Holl, where she had- 
planned to spend the coming season. Her death leaves the 
botanical laboratory without any natural successor, though its 
founders hope that one may be secured who will continue the 
policy which she so ably represented. 

The following minute was adopted by the Executive Committee 
of the Board of Trustees of Barnard College at their meeting on 
Thursday, April 22, 1897: 

Professor Gregory gave to Barnard College, through the eight 
years of its existence, a service in the highest degree loyal, en- 
thusiastic and successful. Her influence in creating and maintain- 
ing a high standard in scientific work was of great importance in 
determining the character of the college. She had the good for- 
tune to possess, together with great intellectual gifts, the graces of 
character to make them effective, and her scholarship was in the 
service of kindliness, of courage and of truth. The college bears 
witness not only to her love of sound learning, but to the modesty 
and openness of mind which were the rare and beautiful setting of 
her powers. 

The following preamble and resolutions were adopted by the 
Club at its meeting, held May 11, 1897: 

Whereas; our esteemed fellow-member, Miss Emily L. Gregory 
is lost to us by death, therefore it is 

Resolved: that in realization of our loss we express our deep 
sorrow for this sad event, at this untimely period when she was 
just about to enter upon a new era in her career as a teacher, to 
which we all, with her, had looked forward with happiest anticipa- 
tion, and 

Resolved: that we have lost in her an accomplished scientist,. 
a devoted teacher, a warm hearted, generous friend, and 



225 

Resolved: that a copy of these resolutions be presented to her 
surviving relatives, to whom we extend our sincerest sympathies. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

1. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 13 : 197-204. 1886. Illustrated. " The 

Pores of the Libriform Tissue!' 

2. Bot. Gaz. 12 : 16. 1887. "Death of Dr. Wigand." 

3. Bot. Gaz. 12: 298. 1887. "Systematic Botany." 

4. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 15 : 86-89. 1888. Review of K. 

Goebel, " Ueber kiinstliche Vergrimung der Sporophylle von 
Onoclea Struthiopteris Hoffm" (Ber. d. deutsch. bot. Gesell. 
5: LXIX. 1887.) 

5. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 15: 139-143. 1888. Review of F. 
Noll, " Experimented Untersuchungeit iiber das Wachsthum der 
Zellmembran." (Abh. d. Senck. nat. Gesell. 15: 101. 1887.) 

•6. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 15: 194-198. 1888. Review of A. F. 
W. Schimper, " Die Wechselbezeichnung zwischen Pflanzen und 
Ameisen in tropischen Amerika." (Jena, Gustav Fischer. 1 888.) 

7. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 15: 237-238. 1888. Review of L. 

Kny, " An attempt to answer the question whether the freezing 
of the seed influences the development of the plant afterward de- 
veloping from the same." (Sitz. d. Gesell. Nat. Fr. z. Berl. 193. 
1887.) 

8. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 15 : 269-271. 1888. Review of G. von 

Krabbe, " Ein Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Structur und des 
WachsthumsvegetabilischerZellhaute!' (Pringsh. Jahrb. 18: 346. 
1887.) 

9. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 16: 15. 1889. Review of Paul Haupt- 

fleisch, " On the Cell-membrane and gelatinous Envelope of the 
Desmidsr (Greifswald, 1888.) 

10. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 16: 25-28. 1889. Review of Alfred 
Moeller, " The so-called Spermatid of the Ascomycetes" (Bot. 
Zeit. 46: 422. 1888.) 

11. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 16: 28-30. 1889. Review of Gaston 
Bonnier's criticisms of Alfred Moeller " On the Culture of 
Lichen-building Ascomycetes without Algae" and "The Germina- 
tion of Lichen- spores on Moss protonema and on Algae which are 



226 

not like the Gonidia of the Lichens!' (Nat. Wiss. Rund. 27. O. 
1888.) 

12. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 16: 79-80. 1889. Review of some Ex- 
periments by Hartig " On the Red Beech in reference to the Influ- 
ence of Seed production on the Increase in Growth and the Reserve- 
material of the Tree," the results of which were presented before 
the Botanical Society of Munich. (Bot. Centr. 36 : 388. 
1888.) 

13. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 16: 80-82. 1889. Review of Hugo 
Zukal, " On the Discovery of Hymenoconidium petasatum! r 
(Bot. Zeit. 47: 62. 1889.) 

14. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 16: 82. 1889. Review of an article 
by G. Haberlandt, " On the Chlorophyll bodies of the Selaginellae \ 
(Flora, 71: 291. 1888.) 

15. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 16: 113-116. 1889. Review of J. 
Reinke, " Studies on the Tilopterideae" (Bot. Zeit. 47 : 102. 
1889.) 

16. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 16: 222-224. 1889. Review of Otto 
von Mueller. " Durchbrechungen der Zellwand in ihren Bezieh- 
ungen zur Ortsbewegung der Bacillariaceen!' (Ber. d. deutsch. 
bot. Gesell. 7: 169. 1889.) 

17. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 16: 224-225. 1889. Review of C. von 
Wisselingh, " On the Walls of suberous Cells!' (Bot. Centr. 
38: 710. 1889.) 

18. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 16: 279-280. 1889. Review of Arthur 
Meyer, u On the Structure of the Vittae in the Fruit of the Umbel- 
liferae! y (Bot. Zeit. 47 : 342, 374. 1889.) 

19. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 16: 297-304. 1889. "Notes on some 
Botanical Reading done in the Laboratory of Professor Schwen- 
dener y in Berlin, in June and July y 1889." 

20. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 16: 33 2 ~333- l88 9- Review of an 
article by Dr. H. Schenck, " On Aerenchyma. — A new Paper on 
Plant Aeration!' (Pringsh. Jahrb. 20:526. 1889.) 

21. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 17 : 16-17. 1890. Review of Fritz 
Mueller on " Freie Gefdssbiindel in den Halmen von Olyra! r 
(Flora, 47: 414. 1889.) 

22. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 17: 38-39. 1890. Review of G. Haber- 
landt on " The Encasing of Protoplasm in Reference to the Function 
of the Cell-nucleus!' (Journ. Vienna Acad. Sci.) 



227 

23. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 17 : 39-40. 1890. Review of M. Bus- 
gen on the " Capture of Insects by Utncularia? (Ber. d. 
deutsch. bot. Gesell. 6: LV. 1888.) 

24. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 17 : 76-77. 1890. Review of A. Wieler, 
" Ueber Anlage und Ausbildung von Libriformfasern in Abhan- 
gigkeit von dusseren Verhdltnissen? (Bot. Zeit. 47 : 517, 533, 
549. 1889.) 

25. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 17: 247-255. pi. 109. 1890. 
" Notes on the Manner of Growth of the Cell-wall? 

26. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 18: 20-22. 1891. Review of Dr. 
Overton, "On the Histology and Physiology of the Characeae? 
[Bot. Cent. 44: 1, 33. 1890.] 

27. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 18: 22-23. 1891. Review of E. Loew 
on "Beitrdge zur blutenbiologischen Statistic? (Verh. bot. Ver. 
d. Prov. Brandbg. 31: 1-63. 1890.) 

28. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 18: 61-64. 1891. Review of Dr. Julius 
Wiesner, "An Attempt to explain the Growth of the Plant Cell? 
(Ber. d. deutsch. bot. Gesell. 8: 196. 1890.) 

29. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 18: 126-127. 1891. Review of Dr. 
Frank " On the Assimilation of the Free Nitrogen of the Air by 
Leguminous Plants? (Ber. d. deutsch. bot. Gesell. 8: 292. 
1890.) 

30. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 18: 1 53-156. 1891. Review of F. 
Keinitz-GerlofT on the " Protoplasmic Union between the neigh- 
boring Elements of the Plant? (Bot. Zeit. 49: 1, 17, 33, 49, 65. 
1 891.) 

31. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 19: 75-79. 1892. //. 125. "On 
the abnormal Growth of Spirogyra Cells? 

32. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 19: 132. 1892. Review of H. Zukal 
on " ff alb- Flechten? (Flora, 74 : 92-107. 1891.) 

33. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 19: 157-158. 1892. Review of 
Gregor Kraus " On Calcium Oxalate in the Bark of Trees, (Bot. 
Centr. 49 : 181. 1892.) 

34. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 19: 313-317. 1892. Review of G. 
Krabbe, " The Lichen Genus Cladonia? (Univ. of Berlin 
1 891.) 

35. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 20 : 100-107.. l8 93- "Anatomy as a 
Special Department of Botany? Read before the A. A. A. S. at 
Rochester, 1892. 



228 

36. " Elements of Plant Anatomy!' Ginn & Co. Boston. 1895. 

37. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 23: 278-281. 1896. " What is meant 
by Stein and Leaf!' 

38. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 24: 214. 1897. Review of T. Chalk- 
ley Palmer, " Demonstration of Absorption of Carbon Dioxide 
and of the Generation of Oxygen by Diatoms!' (Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila. 1897.) 



Studies in the Botany of the Southeastern United States.— X. 

By JOHN K. SMALL. 

THE GENUS TRADESCANTIA IN THE SOUTHERN 

STATES* 

Six years' experience with Tradescantia, both in the field and in 
the herbarium, has convinced me that there is something funda- 
mentally wrong in the several existing treatments of the genus. 
Since I became interested in the forms occurring in the Southern 
States Dr. J. N. Rose has arranged to monograph the North 
American Commellinaceae and I publish these notes with his 
knowledge and consent. 

Linnaeus described a single North American species, namely, 7. 
Virginiana.\ Of American authors, Walter,^ Michaux,§ Pursh,|| 
Elliott Tf and Darby,** each described two species, while Chap- 

* I have had the privilege of examining material in the herbaria of Lafayette Col- 
lege, through Professor Thos. C. Porter, and of Franklin and Marshall College, through 
Professor J. S. Stahr. Professor S. M. Tracy has sent me specimens at various times. 
I have also received material from regions beyond the area with which this paper is 
concerned, from Mr. B. F. Bush, Rev. E. J. Hill and Rev. J. M. Bales. 

f Sp. PI. 288. 

JF1. Car. 119. 

§F1. Bor. Am. 119. 

|| Fl. Am. Sept. 218. 

If Bot. S. C. & Ga. 380-381. 

** Bot. S. States, 547-548.